Remote identification (RID for short, also E-identification)
RID is the digital transmission of the registration number of the operator and the drone, the position of the drone and the pilot via wireless technologies, the purpose of which is to transmit information to other entities (other remote control pilots to increase situational awareness and prevent collisions, but also to the public or the police).
In general, remote identification technology is divided into two types according to the method of transmission:
- Direct broadcasting (direct RID – DRID)
- Broadcasting via Bluetooth and Wifi technologies
- The main purpose is security, possibly also protection of privacy and other legitimate interests
- Intended for local detection of drone operation via a mobile phone application at a distance of hundreds of meters to units of kilometers, or an overview of the area of interest via a network of ground receivers
- Mandatory equipment for drones with class C1-3, C5-6 (for the open category) label and all drones in the specific category (unequipped drones must use additional DRID equipment)
- Network broadcasting (network RID – NRID)
- Broadcasting via mobile operators' data networks
- Intended for drone detection without a network of ground receivers or physical presence with a mobile phone in the area of operation, it serves to continuously determine the location of drones in U-space (it is a source for the traffic information service)
- Uses a continuous connection to the mobile data network
- It is a necessary prerequisite for future operation in the U-Space premises
The mandatory content of the remote identification broadcast is the following parameters:
- drone operator's registration number;
- unique serial number of the drone or additional device;
- geographical position of the drone, height above the take-off point, course and speed;
- geographic position of the remote control pilot, or the take-off point;
- indication of emergency status.
The obligation to equip the drone with the DRID system - direct remote identification is generally established for:a) Drones of classes C1-C3 operated in open categories A1, A2, A3
b) Drones operated in the Specific category
- drones of classes C5 and C6 operated according to the standard scenario (STS 01, STS 02)
- drones operated with operational authorization according to a predefined risk assessment PDRA (G01, G02, G03, S01, S02)
- drones operated with operational authorization as assessed by SORA
- drones operated beyond the scope of the open category, with authorization issued directly by the LUC operator
The obligation to equip the drone with the NRID system - network remote identification is generally established for:
a) Drones operated in U-Space premises (excluding toys and drones up to 250 g and unmanned aircraft up to 25 kg, operated within the framework of a model aircraft club with authorization according to Article 16)
Drones marked with a Class C label
In general, therefore, all drones placed on the market with a label of the relevant class C fulfill the RID obligation and it is only necessary to enter the corresponding data (especially the registration number of the operator) via the user interface "into the unmanned system" (most often via the control application on a mobile device or an integrated tablet) and connect the remote control station (controller) to the Internet (e.g. via hot-spot).
Drones not marked with a Class C label (usually older drones or individual builds)
Even some older drones without Class C label are equipped with the RID capability (e.g. after updating the drone's firmware), and this function only needs to be activated. However, this is not a rule and it is always necessary to check the parameters of the drone in the relevant user manual or with its manufacturer.
Drones that are not equipped with RID technology must be retrofitted with the relevant technology. This generally applies to all drones operated in a specific category of operation.
In addition, we state that the obligation to equip the drone with the RID system may also be a condition for operation in certain geozones, which will be gradually published. These conditions are set by the founder of the zone in question.
Technical solution for additional RID system
Some of the verified devices on the market can be recommended as a technical solution to meet the RID requirement, while a list of manufacturers meeting the conditions for compliance with European legislation can be found on the EASA website (Open Category - Civil Drones | EASA (europa.eu).
In the conditions of the Czech Republic, for example, Drontag, products can be recommended, which is currently the only representative of the Czech industry in this direction.
Verification of RID functionality
To verify the functionality of the RID broadcasting, which is a mandatory procedure of the remote control pilot in pre-flight preparation, one of the following applications can be used (others will follow):
- Open Drone ID
- Drone Scanner ( Drone Scanner on the App Store apple.com), Drone Scanner - Apps on Google Play)
The obligation to equip the drone with the RID system generally does not apply to:
- drones of Class C0, C4 and drones without Class C label operated in the open category of operation A3
- tethered unmanned systems in general
- operation in geozones where exceptions to the rules for the open category apply
- operation within the framework of a model aircraft club, which is the holder of the authorization according to Article 16